- New and Emerging Pathogens in Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease 26 febbraio 2014
Priestnall, S. L., Mitchell, J. A., Walker, C. A., Erles, K., Brownlie, J.
Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.
- Porcine Circovirus: A Historical Perspective 26 febbraio 2014
Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) belong to the genus Circovirus and the family Circoviridae, and they are the smallest known viruses that replicate autonomously in mammalian cells. They are nonenveloped, and they have characteristic single-stranded, negative-sense, circular DNA. Two types of divergent PCVs are recognized: PCV1 and PCV2. About 20 years ago, PCV2 began to emerge as a major pathogen of swine around the world, leading to burgeoning knowledge about the virus and porcine circovirus–associated diseases. However, much of the history of its discovery, including the controversy related to its importance, is not recorded. This review examines current issues related to the biology of PCV2 in the context of the original studies related to determining its causal association with disease and to the evolving understanding of the complex pathogenesis of PCV2 infections.
- The Pathology of Malignant Catarrhal Fever, With an Emphasis on Ovine Herpesvirus 2 26 febbraio 2014
O'Toole, D., Li, H.
The enigmatic pathogenesis of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) involves dysregulated immune responses in susceptible ruminant species. Economically important outbreaks of MCF are due to 2 of the 10 viruses currently comprising the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Attempts to develop effective vaccines for this group of viruses in the 1970s were sufficiently discouraging that they were temporarily abandoned. This review focuses on recent efforts to understand the pathogenesis of MCF, particularly the sheep-associated form of the disease, with the goal of developing rational control methods, including vaccination. The past 2 decades have seen several advances, including recognition of new members of the MCF virus group, better diagnostic assays, induction of disease by a natural route (aerosol), and clearer understanding of OvHV-2’s shedding patterns by domestic sheep. A consistent theme in experimental studies of OvHV-2 in susceptible species is that there are 2 peaks of OvHV-2 gene expression: a preclinical peak involving the respiratory tract and a second in multiple organ systems leading to clinical disease. Latent and lytic gene expression may coexist in tissues during clinical stages in symptomatic animals.
- Horizontally Transferred Genetic Elements and Their Role in Pathogenesis of Bacterial Disease 26 febbraio 2014
Gyles, C., Boerlin, P.
This article reviews the roles that laterally transferred genes (LTG) play in the virulence of bacterial pathogens. The features of LTG that allow them to be recognized in bacterial genomes are described, and the mechanisms by which LTG are transferred between and within bacteria are reviewed. Genes on plasmids, integrative and conjugative elements, prophages, and pathogenicity islands are highlighted. Virulence genes that are frequently laterally transferred include genes for bacterial adherence to host cells, type 3 secretion systems, toxins, iron acquisition, and antimicrobial resistance. The specific roles of LTG in pathogenesis are illustrated by specific reference to Escherichia coli, Salmonella, pyogenic streptococci, and Clostridium perfringens.
- Correct Use of Nomenclature 26 febbraio 2014
de Lahunta, A.
- Nonculture Molecular Techniques for Diagnosis of Bacterial Disease in Animals: A Diagnostic Laboratory Perspective 26 febbraio 2014
Cai, H. Y., Caswell, J. L., Prescott, J. F.
The past decade has seen remarkable technical advances in infectious disease diagnosis, and the pace of innovation is likely to continue. Many of these techniques are well suited to pathogen identification directly from pathologic or clinical samples, which is the focus of this review. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene sequencing are now routinely performed on frozen or fixed tissues for diagnosis of bacterial infections of animals. These assays are most useful for pathogens that are difficult to culture or identify phenotypically, when propagation poses a biosafety hazard, or when suitable fresh tissue is not available. Multiplex PCR assays, DNA microarrays, in situ hybridization, massive parallel DNA sequencing, microbiome profiling, molecular typing of pathogens, identification of antimicrobial resistance genes, and mass spectrometry are additional emerging technologies for the diagnosis of bacterial infections from pathologic and clinical samples in animals. These technical advances come, however, with 2 caveats. First, in the age of molecular diagnosis, quality control has become more important than ever to identify and control for the presence of inhibitors, cross-contamination, inadequate templates from diagnostic specimens, and other causes of erroneous microbial identifications. Second, the attraction of these technologic advances can obscure the reality that medical diagnoses cannot be made on the basis of molecular testing alone but instead through integrated consideration of clinical, pathologic, and laboratory findings. Proper validation of the method is required. It is critical that veterinary diagnosticians understand not only the value but also the limitations of these technical advances for routine diagnosis of infectious disease.
- Recent Advances in Understanding the Pathogenesis of Lawsonia intracellularis Infections 26 febbraio 2014
Vannucci, F. A., Gebhart, C. J.
Proliferative enteropathy is an infectious disease caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis, and characterized by thickening of the intestinal epithelium due to enterocyte proliferation. The disease is endemic in swine herds and has been occasionally reported in various other species. Furthermore, outbreaks among foals began to be reported on breeding farms worldwide within the past 5 years. Cell proliferation is directly associated with bacterial infection and replication in the intestinal epithelium. As a result, mild to severe diarrhea is the major clinical sign described in infected animals. The dynamics of L. intracellularis infection in vitro and in vivo have been well characterized, but little is known about the genetic basis for the pathogenesis or ecology of this organism. The present review focuses on the recent advances regarding the pathogenesis and host-pathogen interaction of L. intracellularis infections.
- Proteomics in Veterinary Medicine: Applications and Trends in Disease Pathogenesis and Diagnostics 26 febbraio 2014
Ceciliani, F., Eckersall, D., Burchmore, R., Lecchi, C.
Advancement in electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques along with the recent progresses in genomics, culminating in bovine and pig genome sequencing, widened the potential application of proteomics in the field of veterinary medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth perspective about the application of proteomics to animal disease pathogenesis, as well as its utilization in veterinary diagnostics. After an overview on the various proteomic techniques that are currently applied to veterinary sciences, the article focuses on proteomic approaches to animal disease pathogenesis. Included as well are recent achievements in immunoproteomics (ie, the identifications through proteomic techniques of antigen involved in immune response) and histoproteomics (ie, the application of proteomics in tissue processed for immunohistochemistry). Finally, the article focuses on clinical proteomics (ie, the application of proteomics to the identification of new biomarkers of animal diseases).
- Pathologic Mechanisms Underlying the Clinical Findings in Canine Leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum/chagasi 26 febbraio 2014
Koutinas, A. F., Koutinas, C. K.
In dogs with symptomatic or asymptomatic leishmaniosis, Leishmania infantum appears to induce a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that in the sick dog may eventually result in tissue damage via different pathomechanisms, notably granulomatous inflammation (eg, nodular dermatitis, osteomyelitis), immune complex deposition (eg, glomerulonephritis), and/or autoantibody production (eg, polymyositis). This is a compensatory but detrimental mechanism generated mainly because of the insufficient killing capacity of macrophages against the parasite in the susceptible dog. Clinical disease is typically exemplified as exfoliative and/or ulcerative dermatitis, with or without nasodigital hyperkeratosis and onychogryphosis, glomerulonephritis, atrophic myositis of masticatory muscles, anterior uveitis, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, epistaxis, and/or polyarthritis, appearing alone or in various combinations. The pathogenesis of these clinical conditions has recently been highlighted, to a greater or lesser extent. The usually subclinical conditions expressed as chronic colitis, chronic hepatitis, vasculitis, myocarditis, osteomyelitis, orchiepididymitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis, though uncommon, are of pathologic importance from a differential point of view. The leading cause of death among canine leishmaniosis patients is chronic proteinuric nephritis that may progress to end-stage kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and/or systemic hypertension. However, even the asymptomatic proteinuria, when profuse, may be a serious problem because it predisposes to arterial thromboembolism and eventually contributes to the deterioration of the body condition.
- Transmission of Systemic AA Amyloidosis in Animals 26 febbraio 2014
Murakami, T., Ishiguro, N., Higuchi, K.
Amyloidoses are a group of protein-misfolding disorders that are characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils in organs and/or tissues. In reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, serum AA (SAA) protein forms deposits in mice, domestic and wild animals, and humans that experience chronic inflammation. AA amyloid fibrils are abnormal β-sheet–rich forms of the serum precursor SAA, with conformational changes that promote fibril formation. Extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils causes disease in affected animals. Recent findings suggest that AA amyloidosis could be transmissible. Similar to the pathogenesis of transmissible prion diseases, amyloid fibrils induce a seeding-nucleation process that may lead to development of AA amyloidosis. We review studies of possible transmission in bovine, avian, mouse, and cheetah AA amyloidosis.