- Polioencephalomalacia Secondary to Hypernatremia in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) 23 aprile 2014
Macri, S. M. C., Masek-Hammerman, K., Crowell, A. M., Fenn, M. S., Knight, H. L., Westmoreland, S. V., Miller, A. D.
Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp) are one of the most consistently used New World primates in biomedical research and are increasingly being used in neuroscience research, including models of drug abuse and addiction. Spontaneous neurologic disease in the squirrel monkey is uncommonly reported but includes various infectious diseases as well as cerebral amyloidosis. Hypernatremia is an extremely serious condition of hyperosmolarity that occurs as a result of water loss, adipsia, or excess sodium intake. Neurologic effects of hypernatremia reflect the cellular dehydration produced by the shift of water from the intracellular fluid space into the hypertonic extracellular fluid space. Severe hypernatremia may result in cerebrocortical laminar necrosis (polioencephalomalacia) in human patients as well as in a number of domestic species, including pigs, poultry, and ruminants. We report the clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of polioencephalomalacia in 13 squirrel monkeys. Polioencephalomalacia in these animals was associated with hypernatremia that was confirmed by serum levels of sodium greater than 180 mmol/L (reference range, 134.0–154.0 mmol/L [mEq/L]). All animals had concurrent diseases or experimental manipulation that predisposed to adipsia. Immunohistochemical investigation using antibodies to neuronal nuclei (NeuN), CNPase, Iba-1, and CD31 revealed necrosis of predominantly cerebral cortical layers 3, 4, and 5 characterized by neuronal degeneration and loss, oligodendrocytic loss, microglial proliferation, and vascular reactivity. The squirrel monkey is exquisitely sensitive to hyperosmolar metabolic disruption and it is associated with laminar cortical necrosis.
- Diagnostic Exercise: Hemolysis and Sudden Death in Lambs 23 aprile 2014
Giannitti, F., Rioseco, M. M., Garcia, J. P., Beingesser, J., Woods, L. W., Puschner, B., Uzal, F. A.
Within a 24-hour period, 7 out of 200 three- to four-week-old pastured Katahdin lambs died after showing clinical signs of hemoglobinuria, red-tinged feces, weakness, and recumbency. One of the lambs that was examined clinically before natural death also had abdominal pain, trembling, tachycardia, and severe anemia with a packed cell volume of 4%. Pathologic findings included icterus, hemoglobinuric nephrosis, dark red urine, pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, splenomegaly, and acute centrilobular to midzonal hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis with cholestasis. The differential diagnoses and diagnostic workup to achieve the diagnosis are briefly discussed.
- Histologic Characteristics and KIT Staining Patterns of Equine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors 23 aprile 2014
Clarke, L., Simon, A., Ehrhart, E. J., Mulick, J., Charles, B., Powers, B., Duncan, C.
Mast cell tumors are uncommon in horses and typically have a benign clinical course, but there are occasional reports of more aggressive behavior. The objective of this study was to review histologic features and KIT expression patterns of 72 previously diagnosed equine cutaneous mast cell tumors to determine if either is associated with clinical outcomes. Biopsy specimens were reviewed using histologic criteria derived from grading schemes, and KIT antibody expression patterns used in canine tumors and surveys were sent to referring veterinarians for follow-up clinical data. Arabians were overrepresented relative to the reference population. Most tumors were well differentiated with low mitotic rates (96%), and aberrant KIT staining patterns, as described in dogs, were uncommonly identified (12%). Associated clinical disease was uncommon and no tumors exhibited malignant behavior. Overall, KIT staining pattern and histologic features were not associated with poor clinical outcome or abnormal tumor behavior.
- Models and Strategies in the Development of Antiobesity Drugs 23 aprile 2014
Agahi, A., Murphy, K. G.
Obesity is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is still a wide disparity between the necessity and availability of safe and effective antiobesity pharmacotherapies. Current drugs are associated with adverse effects and are limited in their efficacy. There is thus an urgent need for new antiobesity agents. Animal models are critical to the study of the biological mechanisms underpinning energy homeostasis and obesity and provide useful tools for the development of novel antiobesity agents. Our understanding of the complex neuronal and hormonal systems that regulate appetite and body weight has largely been based on studies in animals. This review describes the physiological basis of appetite, rodent models used in the development of antiobesity drugs, and potential future targets for novel antiobesity agents.
- Clinical, Morphologic, and Immunohistochemical Features of Canine Orbital Hibernomas 23 aprile 2014
Ravi, M., Schobert, C. S., Kiupel, M., Dubielzig, R. R.
Hibernomas are uncommon benign tumors of brown fat that occur in humans and various animal species. They have not been observed in the orbit of dogs, humans, or other animals. Here we report clinical, light and electron microscopic, and immunohistochemical features of a series of 7 hibernomas arising in the orbital region of dogs. These neoplasms occurred in adult dogs with no breed predilection. The mean age of the affected dogs was 10.4 years (range, 8–13 years). All neoplasms presented as soft lobular masses composed of predominantly round or polygonal neoplastic cells with granular eosinophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm resembling adipocytes. The cytoplasm contained large numbers of pleomorphic mitochondria with dense matrices and indistinct cristae. Immunohistochemical evaluation confirmed positive labeling of neoplastic cells from all cases with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) consistent with brown fat differentiation. Interestingly, rare neoplastic cells also expressed myogenin and myoD, possibly suggesting a common progenitor cell for neoplastic brown adipose and skeletal muscle cells.
- Demodectic Mange, Dermatophilosis, and Other Parasitic and Bacterial Dermatologic Diseases in Free-Ranging White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States From 1975 to 2012 23 aprile 2014
Nemeth, N. M., Ruder, M. G., Gerhold, R. W., Brown, J. D., Munk, B. A., Oesterle, P. T., Kubiski, S. V., Keel, M. K.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential.
- Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions in the Mammary Gland of 24 Pet Rabbits: A Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Characterization 23 aprile 2014
Schoniger, S., Horn, L.- C., Schoon, H.- A.
The aim of this retrospective study (2004–2011) was to examine mammary tumors and tumor-like lesions in 24 pet rabbits by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Rabbits were aged 2 to 8 years. Seventeen were female and 7 female-spayed. Diagnosed tumor-like lesions were lobular hyperplasia (2 rabbits) and multiple cysts (10 rabbits). Tumors included cystadenoma (7 tumors; 3 rabbits), intraductal papilloma (2 tumors; 1 rabbit), intraductal papillary carcinoma (1 tumor), adenocarcinoma (14 tumors; 13 rabbits), adenosquamous carcinoma (2 tumors; 2 rabbits), and matrix-producing carcinoma (1 tumor). The most frequently diagnosed lesion was invasive carcinoma (n = 17). Ten rabbits had several lesions. Immunohistochemistry for calponin and p63 showed that the diagnosed tumor-like lesions, benign tumors, and noninvasive carcinoma had a peripheral myoepithelial layer that was lacking in the invasive carcinomas. In 13 of 14 (93%) of the invasive carcinomas, however, there were variable numbers of calponin- and/or p63-immunopositive cells ranging from 0.1% to 40% with morphological features of either retained nonneoplastic myoepithelial cells or neoplastic epithelial cells with a myoepithelial differentiation. Tumor recurrence was reported in the rabbit with the matrix-producing carcinoma and in 3 rabbits with mammary adenocarcinomas displaying ≥20 mitotic figures in 10 high-power fields and high numbers of neoplastic cells with a myoepithelial differentiation (19%–39%). The rabbit with the matrix-producing mammary carcinoma developed cutaneous metastases confirmed by histopathology. This study shows that different types of mammary tumor-like lesions and tumors can occur in pet rabbits.
- Neoplastic and Nonneoplastic Lesions in Aging Mice of Unique and Common Inbred Strains Contribution to Modeling of Human Neoplastic Diseases 23 aprile 2014
Szymanska, H., Lechowska-Piskorowska, J., Krysiak, E., Strzalkowska, A., Unrug-Bielawska, K., Grygalewicz, B., Skurzak, H. M., Pienkowska-Grela, B., Gajewska, M.
The evaluation of spontaneous lesions in classical inbred strains of mice has become increasingly important because genetically engineered mice (GEMs) are created on these backgrounds. Novel inbred strains—genetically diverse from classic strains—are valuable both as a new background for GEM mice and to increase the genetic variation found in laboratory mice. Newly arising spontaneous genetic alterations in commonly used strains may also lead to new and valuable mouse models of disease. This report evaluates gross and histological lesions in relatively new, classic, and rarely explored mouse inbred strains. Pathological lesions of 1273 mice from 12 inbred strains (129S1/SvW, A.CA-H2f /W, AKR/W, BALB/cW, BN/aW, C57BL/6 W, C57BL/10 W, C3H/W, C3H wad /W, CBA/W, DBA/2 W, and WOM/W) are reported. BN/aW, WOM/W, and C3H wad /W are novel inbred strains produced and maintained in the Department of Genetics and Laboratory Animal Breeding at the Center of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland. Both neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions were examined. The prevalence of lung neoplasms was significantly higher in A.CA-H2f /W (33.3%) and BALB/cW (33.8%) mice (P < .01). The prevalence of liver neoplasms was significantly higher in the CBA/W strain (P < .01). Mammary gland neoplasms arose at a greater frequency in C3H/W mice (P < .01). The occurrence of uterine neoplasms was higher in DBA/W and 129S1/SvW mice. AKR/W and WOM/W mice developed T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma with high frequency (110/121 [90.9%] and 159/175 [90.9%], respectively) before 1 year of age. The occurrence of nonneoplastic lesions in the kidneys of BN/aW mice was increased (P < .01).
- Susceptibility of BALB/c-nu/nu Mice and BALB/c Mice to Equine Herpesvirus 9 Infection 23 aprile 2014
El-Nahass, E., El-Dakhly, K. M., El-Habashi, N., Anwar, S. I., Sakai, H., Hirata, A., Okada, A., Abo-Sakaya, R., Fukushi, H., Yanai, T.
This study aimed to clarify the timing and infectivity of equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) infection in BALB/c-nu/nu mice and their immunocompetent counterpart (BALB/c). Following intranasal inoculation with 105 PFU of EHV-9, specimens from 8 mice per group were collected at different times postinoculation (PI) and assessed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for viral antigen, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for ORF30 gene expression. In BALB/c-nu/nu mice, EHV-9 antigen was abundant in olfactory epithelia of all inoculated animals, and in the olfactory bulb of 1 animal. In contrast, only 1 BALB/c mouse per time point had rhinitis, with mild to moderate immunopositivity starting from 12 to 48 h PI, followed by a gradual virus clearance at 72 h PI. Statistically, significant differences were noted in the immunohistochemistry reactions between the 2 mouse strains, indicating that BALB/c-nu/nu is more susceptible to infection. Relative expression levels of ORF30 gene in olfactory epithelia were significantly different between the 2 groups, with the exception of 12 h PI, when BALB/c-nu/nu animals showed dramatic increases in ORF30 gene expression level until 48 h PI, followed by a decline in expression level until the end of experiment. In contrast, the expression level in brains showed no differences between mouse strain except at 96 h PI. In both strains, the highest messenger RNA expression was detected at 48 h PI, followed by a decline in BALB/c mice, proving a rapid clearance of virus in BALB/c and a gradual slowing down of the increased expression levels in BALB/c-nu/nu.
- Analysis of a New Histological and Molecular-Based Classification of Canine Mammary Neoplasia 23 aprile 2014
Im, K. S., Kim, N. H., Lim, H. Y., Kim, H. W., Shin, J. I., Sur, J. H.
Canine mammary tumors (CMTs) are morphologically and biologically heterogeneous, prompting several attempts to classify such tumors on the basis of their histopathological characteristics. Recently, molecular-based analysis methods borrowed from human breast cancer research have also been applied to the classification of CMTs. In this study, canine mammary neoplasms (n = 648) occurring in Korea from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed according to the histological classification and grading system proposed by Goldschmidt et al. Furthermore, randomly selected mammary carcinomas (n = 159) were classified according to the molecular subtype using immunohistochemical characteristics. Canine mammary neoplasia accounted for 52.6% (648/1250) of the tumors in female dogs, and 51.7% (340/648) of these were malignant. All of the carcinoma-anaplastic subtypes were grade III tumors (5/5, 100%), while most of the carcinoma-tubular subtypes (15/18, 83.3%) and carcinoma arising in a complex adenoma/mixed-tumor subtype (115/135, 85.2%) were grade I tumors. Tumor cell invasion into lymphatic vessels was most common in the comedocarcinoma, carcinoma-anaplastic, and inflammatory carcinoma subtypes. The most frequently occurring molecular subtype (70/159, 44%) was luminal A. However, the basal-like subtype was the most malignant and was frequently associated with grade III tumors and lymphatic invasion. The carcinoma-solid subtypes were also often of the basal-like subtype. Reclassification of CMTs using the newly proposed histopathological classification system and molecular subtyping could aid in determining the prognosis and the most suitable anticancer treatment for each case.