- Authors Responses to Dr Del Pieros Critique 13 giugno 2016
- The Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Infection in Horses 13 giugno 2016
Piero, F. D.
- Dentin Dysplasia in Notum Knockout Mice 13 giugno 2016
Vogel, P., Read, R. W., Hansen, G. M., Powell, D. R., Kantaputra, P. N., Zambrowicz, B., Brommage, R.
Secreted WNT proteins control cell differentiation and proliferation in many tissues, and NOTUM is a secreted enzyme that modulates WNT morphogens by removing a palmitoleoylate moiety that is essential for their activity. To better understand the role this enzyme in development, the authors produced NOTUM-deficient mice by targeted insertional disruption of the Notum gene. The authors discovered a critical role for NOTUM in dentin morphogenesis suggesting that increased WNT activity can disrupt odontoblast differentiation and orientation in both incisor and molar teeth. Although molars in Notum-/- mice had normal-shaped crowns and normal mantle dentin, the defective crown dentin resulted in enamel prone to fracture during mastication and made teeth more susceptible to endodontal inflammation and necrosis. The dentin dysplasia and short roots contributed to tooth hypermobility and to the spread of periodontal inflammation, which often progressed to periapical abscess formation. The additional incidental finding of renal agenesis in some Notum -/- mice indicated that NOTUM also has a role in kidney development, with undiagnosed bilateral renal agenesis most likely responsible for the observed decreased perinatal viability of Notum-/- mice. The findings support a significant role for NOTUM in modulating WNT signaling pathways that have pleiotropic effects on tooth and kidney development.
- Herpesviral Hematopoietic Necrosis in Goldfish in Switzerland: Early Lesions in Clinically Normal Goldfish (Carassius auratus) 13 giugno 2016
Giovannini, S., Bergmann, S. M., Keeling, C., Lany, C., Schütze, H., Schmidt-Posthaus, H.
Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 is a pathogen of goldfish, inducing a disease referred to as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis. The disease is described so far in Japan, North America, Taiwan, Australia, the United Kingdom, and recently also Italy. Here the authors describe histologic lesions in clinically affected fish in comparison with clinically normal but virus DNA–positive goldfish in Switzerland. While necrosis or enhanced single-cell necrosis in the hematopoietic tissue in the pronephros or mesonephros was evident in dead and sick animals, in clinically normal goldfish, only single-cell necrosis was observed. Virus DNA was demonstrated in dead as well as clinically affected and subclinically infected goldfish by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. This study identifies the presence of goldfish herpesvirus in Switzerland and highlights the fact that the virus might be more widespread than assumed, as clinically normal goldfish can also carry cyprinid herpesvirus 2, showing histologically similar lesions but of lesser extent and severity.
- Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Animal Disease 13 giugno 2016
In humans and mouse models, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are known to control all aspects of immune responses. However, only limited information exists on these cells’ role in diseases of other animals. In this review, we cover the most important features and different types of regulatory T cells, which include those that are thymus-derived and peripherally induced, the mechanisms by which they control immune responses by targeting effector T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and most important, their role in animal health and diseases including cancer, infections, and other conditions such as hypersensitivities and autoimmunity. Although the literature regarding regulatory T cells in domestic animal species is still limited, multiple articles have recently emerged and are discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the evidence suggesting that regulatory T cells might limit the magnitude of effector responses, which can have either a positive or negative result, depending on the context of animal and human disease. In addition, the issue of plasticity is discussed because plasticity in regulatory T cells can result in the loss of their protective function in some microenvironments during disease. Lastly, the manipulation of regulatory T cells is discussed in assessing the possibility of their use as a treatment in the future.
- The Spinal Ependymal Layer in Health and Disease 13 giugno 2016
Moore, S. A.
Ependymal cells are epithelial support cells that line the central canal and ventricular cavities of the central nervous system, providing the interface between the cerebrospinal fluid and the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord. The spinal ependymal layer (SEL) is composed of 3 main cell types: tanycytes, ependymocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid–contacting neurons. A fourth cell type, termed the supraependymal cell, is also occasionally described. Cells of the SEL show restricted proliferative capacity in health but display neural stem cell properties both in vitro and in vivo in various disease states. A growing body of literature is devoted to the regenerative roles of the SEL, particularly in the context of spinal cord injury, where mechanical damage to the spinal cord leads to a significant increase in SEL proliferation. SEL-derived cell progeny migrate to sites of injury within the injured spinal cord parenchyma and contribute primarily to glial scar formation. In additional to their role as endogenous neural stem cells, cells of the SEL may be an important source of cytokines and other cell signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor, heat shock proteins, and various growth factors. The SEL has become of recent interest to neuroscience researchers because of its potential to participate in and respond to diseases affecting the spinal cord (eg, traumatic spinal cord injury) and neurodegenerative disease. The intimate association of the SEL with the cerebrospinal fluid makes intrathecal therapies a viable option, and recent studies highlight the potential promise of treatments that augment SEL responses to disease.
- Cutaneous Lymphoma at Injection Sites: Pathological, Immunophenotypical, and Molecular Characterization in 17 Cats 13 giugno 2016
Roccabianca, P., Avallone, G., Rodriguez, A., Crippa, L., Lepri, E., Giudice, C., Caniatti, M., Moore, P. F., Affolter, V. K.
Feline primary cutaneous lymphomas (FPCLs) account for 0.2% to 3% of all lymphomas in cats and are more frequently dermal nonepitheliotropic small T-cell tumors. Emergence of FPCL seems unrelated to feline leukemia virus (FeLV) serological positivity or to skin inflammation. A total of 17 cutaneous lymphomas with a history of vaccine injection at the site of tumor development were selected from 47 FPCLs. Clinical presentation, histology, immunophenotype, FeLV p27 and gp70 expression, and clonality were assessed. A majority of male (12/17), domestic short-haired (13/17) cats with a mean age of 11.3 years was reported. Postinjection time of development ranged from 15 days to approximately 9 years in 5 cats. At diagnosis, 11 of 17 cats had no evidence of internal disease. Lymphomas developed in interscapular (8/17), thoracic (8/17), and flank (1/17) cutaneous regions; lacked epitheliotropism; and were characterized by necrosis (16/17), angiocentricity (13/17), angioinvasion (9/17), angiodestruction (8/17), and peripheral inflammation composed of lymphoid aggregates (14/17). FeLV gp70 and/or p27 proteins were expressed in 10 of 17 tumors. By means of World Health Organization classification, immunophenotype, and clonality, the lesions were categorized as large B-cell lymphoma (11/17), anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (3/17), natural killer cell–like (1/17) lymphoma, or peripheral T-cell lymphoma (1/17). Lineage remained uncertain in 1 case. Cutaneous lymphomas at injection sites (CLIS) shared some clinical and pathological features with feline injection site sarcomas and with lymphomas developing in the setting of subacute to chronic inflammation reported in human beings. Persistent inflammation induced by the injection and by reactivation of FeLV expression may have contributed to emergence of CLIS.
- Histologic Lesions Induced by Murine Norovirus Infection in Laboratory Mice 13 giugno 2016
Hsu, C. C., Piotrowski, S. L., Meeker, S. M., Smith, K. D., Maggio-Price, L., Treuting, P. M.
Murine noroviruses (MNVs) are highly prevalent in laboratory mice, can cause persistent infections, and have been shown to infect macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. To address the potential impact of MNV infection on research outcomes, numerous studies have been conducted with various mouse models of human disease and have generated mixed results, ranging from no impact to significant disease. Many of these studies included histologic evaluations after MNV infection, and these results have similarly been variable in terms of whether MNV induces lesions, despite the fact that localization of MNV by viral culture and molecular techniques have demonstrated systemic distribution regardless of mouse immune status. The aim of this review is to summarize the histologic findings that have been reported with MNV infection in several mouse models. The studies demonstrate that experimental infection of MNV in wild-type mice results in minimal to no histologic changes. In contrast, immunodeficient mice consistently have detectable MNV-induced lesions that are typically inflammatory and, in the most severe cases, accompanied by necrosis. In these, the liver is commonly affected, with more variable lesions reported in the lung, gastrointestinal tract, mesenteric lymph nodes, brain, and spleen. In specific disease models including atherosclerosis, MNV infection had a variable impact that was dependent on the mouse model, viral strain, timing of infection, or other experimental variables. It is important to recognize the reported MNV lesions to help discern the possible influence of MNV infection on data generated in mouse models.
- X-Linked Hereditary Nephropathy in Navasota Dogs: Clinical Pathology, Morphology, and Gene Expression During Disease Progression 13 giugno 2016
Benali, S. L., Lees, G. E., Nabity, M. B., Arico, A., Drigo, M., Gallo, E., Giantin, M., Aresu, L.
X-linked hereditary nephropathy (XLHN) in Navasota dogs is a spontaneously occurring disease caused by a mutation resulting in defective production of type IV collagen and juvenile-onset renal failure. The study was aimed at examining the evolution of renal damage and the expression of selected molecules potentially involved in the pathogenesis of XLHN. Clinical data and renal samples were obtained in 10 XLHN male dogs and 5 controls at 4 (T0), 6 (T1), and 9 (T2) months of age. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were scored by light microscopy, and the expression of 21 molecules was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction with selected proteins evaluated by immunohistochemistry. No significant histologic lesions or clinicopathologic abnormalities were identified in controls at any time-point. XLHN dogs had progressive proteinuria starting at T0. At T1, XLHN dogs had a mesangioproliferative glomerulopathy with glomerular loss, tubular necrosis, and interstitial fibrosis. At T2, glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were more severe, particularly glomerular loss, interstitial fibrosis, and inflammation. At T0, transforming growth factor β, connective tissue growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor α mRNA were overexpressed in XLHN dogs compared with controls. Clusterin and TIMP1 transcripts were upregulated in later stages of the disease. Transforming growth factor β, connective tissue growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor α should be considered as key players in the initial events of XHLN. Clusterin and TIMP1 appear to be more associated with the progression rather than initiation of tubulointerstitial damage in chronic renal disease.
- Detection of Copy Number Imbalance in Canine Urothelial Carcinoma With Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction 13 giugno 2016
Mochizuki, H., Shapiro, S. G., Breen, M.
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common neoplasm of the canine urinary tract. Clinical presentation of UC is shared with several other, more common urinary tract disorders, and this often delays diagnosis of the UC. Definitive diagnosis of UC requires histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen, but the cost and invasiveness for these diagnostic tests often result in most diagnoses being made on the basis of clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, and cytologic examination of urine sediment. Regardless of the diagnostic process used, most UCs currently are not diagnosed until they are at an advanced clinical stage and so are associated with poor prognosis. Improved methods for earlier and less invasive detection are needed. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated the presence of highly recurrent DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) in canine UC and hypothesized that detection of these CNAs in tumor cells can be used as a molecular diagnostic for UC. In this study, a multiplexed droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assay was detected to detect and quantify CNAs of specific regions of canine chromosomes 8, 13, 19, and 36. The assay was effective at differentiating 31 neoplastic and 25 nonneoplastic bladder tissues based on copy number, with 100% sensitivity and specificity in tissue samples. CNAs were also detected by ddPCR in 67% (12 of 18) of urine DNA specimens derived from UC patients. The findings show that ddPCR is a useful molecular technique to detect CNAs and may be used as a noninvasive molecular diagnostic test for canine UC.