- Is Dolphin Morbillivirus Virulent for White-Beaked Dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris)? 31 ottobre 2014
van Elk, C. E., van de Bildt, M. W. G., Jauniaux, T., Hiemstra, S., van Run, P. R. W. A., Foster, G., Meerbeek, J., Osterhaus, A. D. M. E., Kuiken, T.
The virulence of morbilliviruses for toothed whales (odontocetes) appears to differ according to host species. In 4 species of odontocetes, morbilliviruses are highly virulent, causing large-scale epizootics with high mortality. In 8 other species of odontocetes, including white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), morbilliviruses have been found as an incidental infection. In these species, the virulence of morbilliviruses is not clear. Therefore, the admission of 2 white-beaked dolphins with morbillivirus infection into a rehabilitation center provided a unique opportunity to investigate the virulence of morbillivirus in this species. By phylogenetic analysis, the morbilliviruses in both animals were identified as a dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) most closely related to that detected in a white-beaked dolphin in Germany in 2007. Both animals were examined clinically and pathologically. Case No. 1 had a chronic neural DMV infection, characterized by polioencephalitis in the cerebrum and morbillivirus antigen expression limited to neurons and glial cells. Surprisingly, no nervous signs were observed in this animal during the 6 months before death. Case No. 2 had a subacute systemic DMV infection, characterized by interstitial pneumonia, leucopenia, lymphoid depletion, and DMV antigen expression in mononuclear cells and syncytia in the lung and in mononuclear cells in multiple lymphoid organs. Cause of death was not attributed to DMV infection in either animal. DMV was not detected in 2 contemporaneously stranded white-beaked dolphins. Stranding rate did not increase in the region. These results suggest that DMV is not highly virulent for white-beaked dolphins.
- Kennedy, the Early Sixties, and Visitation by the Angel of Death 31 ottobre 2014
O'Toole, D., Chase, C. C. L., Miller, M. M., Campen, H. V.
The inaugural issue of Pathologia Veterinaria in 1964 contained the first detailed account of lesions in aborted fetuses following natural, experimental, and postvaccinal infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). The article, written by pathologists Kennedy and Richards, described diagnostic gross and histologic features in 13 bovine fetuses. The authors provided clinical and epidemiologic features of 1 postvaccination outbreak, including the absence of clinical signs in infected dams and the propensity for abortions to occur after 6 months’ gestation. Subsequent field and experimental studies corroborated and expanded these observations. As a result of this and later reports, veterinarians became alert to the association between infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and abortion, including the risks of exposing pregnant cattle to live vaccinal BoHV-1. Methods were developed to corroborate a morphologic diagnosis of herpetic abortion in cattle, including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Outbreaks of postvaccinal BoHV-1 abortion in the United States began to be reported with apparently increased frequency in the early 2000s. This coincided with licensure in 2003 of modified live BoHV-1 vaccines intended for use in pregnant cattle, which are now sold by 3 manufacturers. Ten recent herd episodes of postvaccinal BoHV-1 abortion are reported. All 10 BoHV-1 isolates had single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) profiles previously identified in a group of BoHV-1 isolates that contains vaccine strains, based on a BoHV-1 SNP classification system. They lacked SNP features typical of those in characterized field-type strains of BoHV-1.
- Establishment of a Rat Model for Canine Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis (NME) 31 ottobre 2014
Park, E.- S., Uchida, K., Nakayama, H.
The pathogenesis of necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), necrotizing leukoencephalitis (NLE), and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) is still uncertain, although they are considered immune-mediated diseases. The purpose of the present study is to generate a rodent model(s) of these diseases. Rats were injected with rat cerebral or cerebellar homogenate. Rats injected with cerebral homogenate (Cbr) exhibited vacuolar or malacic changes mainly in the cerebral cortex. CD3-positive T cells and Iba-1–positive and CD163-negative microglia infiltrated and activated around the lesions. IgG deposited in the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)–positive glia limitans from the early phase, and CD3-positive T cells attached to GFAP-positive astrocytes. Autoantibodies against GFAP were detected in the sera. These pathological features of Cbr rats were consistent with those of canine NME. In contrast, rats injected with cerebral homogenate (Cbe) exhibited demyelinating lesions with inflammatory reactions in the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. The presence of demyelination and autoantibodies against myelin proteins in Cbe rats was similar to murine experimental autoimmune encephalitis and differed from NME, NLE, and GME. All the present findings indicate that autoantibodies together with microglia and T cells may play a major role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic canine meningoencephalomyelitis.
- Bovine and Human Papillomaviruses: A Comparative Review 31 ottobre 2014
Munday, J. S.
Fifty years ago, inoculation with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) was found to cause mesenchymal tumors of the skin in cattle and horses, as well as tumors of the bladder in cattle. Subsequent to these studies of BPVs, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) were found to cause cervical cancer resulting in intense research into papillomaviruses. During the past 50 years, the ways that HPVs and BPVs cause disease have been investigated, and both HPVs and BPVs have been associated with an increasingly diverse range of diseases. Herein, the biology, oncogenic mechanisms, and diseases associated with BPVs are compared with those of HPVs. As reviewed, there are currently significant differences between BPVs and HPVs. However, research 50 years ago into BPVs formed a prologue for the recognition that papillomaviruses have a significant role in human disease, and it is possible that future research may similarly reveal that BPVs are less different from HPVs than is currently recognized.
- Samuel Wesley ("Sam") Thompson II (1925-2014) 31 ottobre 2014
- Advancement of Knowledge of Brucella Over the Past 50 Years 31 ottobre 2014
Olsen, S. C., Palmer, M. V.
Fifty years ago, bacteria in the genus Brucella were known to cause infertility and reproductive losses. At that time, the genus was considered to contain only 3 species: Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis, and Brucella suis. Since the early 1960s, at least 7 new species have been identified as belonging to the Brucella genus (Brucella canis, Brucella ceti, Brucella inopinata, Brucella microti, Brucella neotomae, Brucella ovis, and Brucella pinnipedialis) with several additional new species under consideration for inclusion. Although molecular studies have found such high homology that some authors have proposed that all Brucella are actually 1 species, the epidemiologic and diagnostic benefits for separating the genus based on phenotypic characteristics are more compelling. Although pathogenic Brucella spp have preferred reservoir hosts, their ability to infect numerous mammalian hosts has been increasingly documented. The maintenance of infection in new reservoir hosts, such as wildlife, has become an issue for both public health and animal health regulatory personnel. Since the 1960s, new information on how Brucella enters host cells and modifies their intracellular environment has been gained. Although the pathogenesis and histologic lesions of B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis in their preferred hosts have not changed, additional knowledge on the pathology of these brucellae in new hosts, or of new species of Brucella in their preferred hosts, has been obtained. To this day, brucellosis remains a significant human zoonosis that is emerging or reemerging in many parts of the world.
- Abdominal Wall Mass and Hemoabdomen in a Haflinger Mare 31 ottobre 2014
Girard, C., Macieira, S.
A 6-year-old Haflinger mare was presented with a history of recurrent hemoabdomen. On necropsy, a firm infiltrative multinodular yellow mass was observed in the wall of the posterior abdomen. Histopathologic examination revealed a proliferation of fibroblastic cells, which were positive for α–smooth muscle actin and vimentin.
- Differences in Indicators of Malignancy Between Luminal Epithelial Cell Type and Myoepithelial Cell Type of Simple Solid Carcinoma in the Canine Mammary Gland 31 ottobre 2014
Yoshimura, H., Nakahira, R., Kishimoto, T. E., Michishita, M., Ohkusu-Tsukada, K., Takahashi, K.
Routinely diagnosed simple solid carcinoma (SSC) of the canine mammary gland comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors. Seventy-two cases that had been diagnosed as SSC based on hematoxylin and eosin–stained tissue sections were reclassified immunohistochemically on the basis of myoepithelial markers p63 and α-smooth muscle actin, as well as a luminal epithelial marker cytokeratin 8. Only 23 cases (32%) were true SSC, composed only of luminal epithelial cells, whereas 11 cases (15%) were malignant myoepithelioma (MM), composed predominantly of myoepithelial cells, and 38 cases (53%) were biphasic carcinoma (BC), characterized by biphasic proliferation of luminal epithelial and basal/myoepithelial components. As the pathological parameters were compared between the reclassified tumor types, infiltrative potential, vascular/lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and Ki-67 labeling index were higher in true SSC compared with MM and BC, suggesting that the former may exhibit a poorer prognosis compared with the latter two.
- Megaesophagus in a Line of Transgenic Rats: A Model of Achalasia 31 ottobre 2014
Pang, J., Borjeson, T. M., Muthupalani, S., Ducore, R. M., Carr, C. A., Feng, Y., Sullivan, M. P., Cristofaro, V., Luo, J., Lindstrom, J. M., Fox, J. G.
Megaesophagus is defined as the abnormal enlargement or dilatation of the esophagus, characterized by a lack of normal contraction of the esophageal walls. This is called achalasia when associated with reduced or no relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). To date, there are few naturally occurring models for this disease. A colony of transgenic (Pvrl3-Cre) rats presented with megaesophagus at 3 to 4 months of age; further breeding studies revealed a prevalence of 90% of transgene-positive animals having megaesophagus. Affected rats could be maintained on a total liquid diet long term and were shown to display the classic features of dilated esophagus, closed lower esophageal sphincter, and abnormal contractions on contrast radiography and fluoroscopy. Histologically, the findings of muscle degeneration, inflammation, and a reduced number of myenteric ganglia in the esophagus combined with ultrastructural lesions of muscle fiber disarray and mitochondrial changes in the striated muscle of these animals closely mimic that seen in the human condition. Muscle contractile studies looking at the response of the lower esophageal sphincter and fundus to electrical field stimulation, sodium nitroprusside, and L-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester also demonstrate the similarity between megaesophagus in the transgenic rats and patients with achalasia. No primary cause for megaesophagus was found, but the close parallel to the human form of the disease, as well as ease of care and manipulation of these rats, makes this a suitable model to better understand the etiology of achalasia as well as study new management and treatment options for this incurable condition.
- Comparison of Lesion Severity, Distribution, and Colonic Mucin Expression in Pigs With Acute Swine Dysentery Following Oral Inoculation With "Brachyspira hampsonii" or Brachyspira hyodysenteriae 31 ottobre 2014
Wilberts, B. L., Arruda, P. H., Kinyon, J. M., Madson, D. M., Frana, T. S., Burrough, E. R.
Swine dysentery is classically associated with infection by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the only current officially recognized Brachyspira sp. that consistently imparts strong beta-hemolysis on blood agar. Recently, several strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira have been isolated from swine with clinical dysentery that are not identified as B. hyodysenteriae by PCR including the recently proposed species "Brachyspira hampsonii." In this study, 6-week-old pigs were inoculated with either a clinical isolate of "B. hampsonii" (EB107; n = 10) clade II or a classic strain of B. hyodysenteriae (B204; n = 10) to compare gross and microscopic lesions and alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with clinical disease versus controls (n = 6). Gross lesions were similar between infected groups. No histologic difference was observed between infected groups with regard to neutrophilic inflammation, colonic crypt depth, mucosal ulceration, or hemorrhage. Histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluation of the apex of the spiral colon revealed decreased expression of sulphated mucins, decreased expression of MUC4, and increased expression of MUC5AC in diseased pigs compared to controls. No difference was observed between diseased pigs in inoculated groups. This study reveals significant alterations in colonic mucin expression in pigs with acute swine dysentery and further reveals that these and other microscopic changes are similar following infection with "B. hampsonii" clade II or B. hyodysenteriae.