Veterinary Pathology

  • Chordomas at High Prevalence in the Captive Population of the Endangered Perdido Key Beach Mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) 28 dicembre 2015
    Taylor, K. R., Garner, M. M., Russell, K., Epperson, E. D., Grodi, H. A., Roff, S. R., Dumonceaux, G. A., Struthers, J. D., Dark, M. J., Abbott, J. R.
    The Perdido Key beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis) is a critically endangered subspecies of the oldfield mouse. The captive population, currently maintained by 3 Florida zoos, is entirely derived from just 3 wild-caught ancestor mice. Necropsy and histopathology revealed chordoma of the vertebral column in 38 of 88 (43%) mice. The tumors were locally expansile and invasive masses of large physaliferous (vacuolated) cells with small, round, hyperchromatic nuclei, similar to the "classic" form of chordomas described in humans. Primary tumors rarely contained small amounts of bone and cartilaginous matrix, characteristic of the "chondroid" form. Neoplastic cells contained abundant granules positive by the periodic acid–Schiff reaction. Brachyury and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 were detected in neoplastic cells by immunohistochemistry, but uncoupling protein 1 was not identified. Primary tumors occurred along the entire vertebral column—cervical, 5 of 38 (13%); thoracic, 16 (42%); lumbar, 13 (34%); and sacral, 10 (26%)—and 10 (26%) mice had multiple primary masses. Metastases to the lungs were noted in 13 of the 38 (34%) mice. Mice diagnosed with chordomas postmortem ranged from 424 to 2170 days old, with a mean of 1399 days. The prevalence of chordoma was not significantly different between males (n = 23 of 50; 46%) and females (n = 15 of 38; 39%).
  • Mitotic Count and the Field of View Area: Time to Standardize 28 dicembre 2015
    Meuten, D. J., Moore, F. M., George, J. W.
  • Gross and Microscopic Pathology for Quantifying Responses of Coral Reefs to Remediation Efforts 28 dicembre 2015
    Reynolds, T. L.
  • The Microbiome: The Trillions of Microorganisms That Maintain Health and Cause Disease in Humans and Companion Animals 28 dicembre 2015
    Hoffmann, A. R., Proctor, L. M., Surette, M. G., Suchodolski, J. S.
    The microbiome is the complex collection of microorganisms, their genes, and their metabolites, colonizing the human and animal mucosal surfaces, digestive tract, and skin. It is now well known that the microbiome interacts with its host, assisting in digestion and detoxification, supporting immunity, protecting against pathogens, and maintaining health. Studies published to date have demonstrated that healthy individuals are often colonized with different microbiomes than those with disease involving various organ systems. This review covers a brief history of the development of the microbiome field, the main objectives of the Human Microbiome Project, and the most common microbiomes inhabiting the human respiratory tract, companion animal digestive tract, and skin in humans and companion animals. The main changes in the microbiomes in patients with pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous lesions are described.
  • Image Analysis-Based Approaches for Scoring Mouse Models of Colitis 28 dicembre 2015
    Rogers, R., Eastham-Anderson, J., DeVoss, J., Lesch, J., Yan, D., Xu, M., Solon, M., Hotzel, K., Diehl, L., Webster, J. D.
    Mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease are critical for basic and translational research that is advancing the understanding and treatment of this disease. Assessment of these mouse models frequently relies on histologic endpoints. In recent years, whole slide imaging and digital pathology-based image analysis platforms have become increasingly available for implementation into the pathology workflow. These automated image analysis approaches allow for nonbiased quantitative assessment of histologic endpoints. In this study, the authors sought to develop an image analysis workflow using a commercially available image analysis platform that requires minimal training in image analysis or programming, and this workflow was used to score 2 mouse models of colitis that are primarily characterized by immune cell infiltrates in the lamina propria. Although the software was unable to accurately and consistently segment hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections, automated quantification of CD3 immunolabeling resulted in strong correlations with the pathologist’s score in all studies and allowed for the identification of 8 of the 9 differences among treatment groups that were identified by the pathologist. These results demonstrate not only the ability to incorporate solutions based on image analysis into the pathologist’s workflow but also the importance of immunohistochemical or histochemical surrogates for the incorporation of image analysis in histologic assessments.
  • Pathologic Findings and Trends in Mortality in the Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) Population of the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada, From 1983 to 2012 28 dicembre 2015
    Lair, S., Measures, L. N., Martineau, D.
    An isolated population of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) inhabits the St Lawrence Estuary, Quebec, Canada. This population has failed to recover despite the prohibition of hunting >30 years ago, suggesting the presence of other limiting factors. The authors summarize the reported causes of death and propose risk factors to explain the lack of recovery of this population. From 1983 to 2012, a total of 472 beluga were found stranded. Complete necropsies were carried out on 222 beluga, including 178 adults, 25 juveniles, and 19 newborn calves. Infectious diseases, the most prevalent cause of mortality in this population, accounted for the death of one-third of all beluga (32%). Verminous pneumonia was the cause of mortality of 13 juvenile beluga (52% of juvenile beluga). A total of 39 malignant neoplasms, diagnosed in 35 beluga, caused the death of 31 beluga (20% of beluga >19 years old). Median age at diagnosis of cancer was 48 years (range, 30–61 years). Dystocia and postpartum complications were the cause of death in 18 beluga, accounting for 19% of the females >19 years old examined. The occurrence of parturition-associated complications, as well as mortality of calves
  • Exocrine Pancreas in Cats With Diabetes Mellitus 28 dicembre 2015
    Zini, E., Ferro, S., Lunardi, F., Zanetti, R., Heller, R. S., Coppola, L. M., Guscetti, F., Osto, M., Lutz, T. A., Cavicchioli, L., Reusch, C. E.
    Pancreatitis has been described in cats with diabetes mellitus, although the number of studies currently available is very limited. In addition, ketoacidosis has been hypothesized to be associated with pancreatitis in diabetic cats. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether diabetic cats have pancreatitis and to determine if pancreatitis is more frequent with ketoacidosis. Samples of pancreas were collected postmortem from 37 diabetic cats, including 15 with ketoacidosis, and 20 control cats matched for age, sex, breed, and body weight. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, double-labeled for insulin/CD3, insulin/CD20, insulin/myeloperoxidase, insulin/PCNA, and glucagon/Ki67, and single-labeled for Iba1. A previously proposed semiquantitative score was used to characterize pancreatitis, along with counts of inflammatory cells. Scores of pancreatitis and the number of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas did not differ between diabetic and control cats or between diabetic cats with and without ketoacidosis. Of note, PCNA-positive acinar cells were increased (P = .002) in diabetic cats, particularly near islets (P < .001). Ki67-positive acinar cells were increased only near islets (P = .038). Ketoacidosis was not linked to proliferation. The results suggest that histopathologic evidence of pancreatitis may not be more frequent in diabetic cats and that ketoacidosis may not be associated with it at the time of death. Augmented PCNA-positive acinar cells might indicate increased proliferation due to chronic pancreatitis. The reason behind the prevalent proliferation of acinar cells surrounding pancreatic islets deserves further investigation.
  • Ki-67 as a Prognostic Factor in Feline Mammary Carcinoma: What Is the Optimal Cutoff Value? 28 dicembre 2015
    Soares, M., Ribeiro, R., Carvalho, S., Peleteiro, M., Correia, J., Ferreira, F.
    Ki-67 is a nuclear protein and a proliferation marker frequently used in establishing the prognosis for breast cancer patients. To investigate the prognostic value of the Ki-67 proliferation index in female cats with mammary carcinoma, a prospective study was conducted with 96 animals. The Ki-67 index of primary tumors (n = 96) was initially determined, and whenever possible, the Ki-67 index of regional lymph node metastasis (n = 38) and distant metastasis (n = 16) was also estimated. The optimal cutoff value for the Ki-67 index was determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Ki-67 indices ≥14% were detected in 72.9% (70 of 96) of the tumors. Tumors with a Ki-67 index ≥14% were significantly associated with large size (P = .022), poor differentiation (P = .009), presence of necrotic areas (P = .008), estrogen receptor-negative status (P < .0001), fHER2-negative status (P = .003), and shorter overall survival (P = .012). Moreover, Ki-67 expression in the primary tumor was strongly and positively correlated with both regional metastasis (P < .0001; r = 0.83) and distant metastasis (P < .0001; r = 0.83), and was significantly higher in distant metastases when compared with the primary tumor (P = .0009). A similar correlation was also observed between regional and distant metastasis (P < .0001; r = 0.75). On the basis of the above results, the authors propose the adoption of the 14% value as the optimal cutoff for Ki-67 to identify tumors with high risk of disease progression.
  • Laguna Negra Virus Infection Causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Turkish Hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) 28 dicembre 2015
    Hardcastle, K., Scott, D., Safronetz, D., Brining, D. L., Ebihara, H., Feldmann, H., LaCasse, R. A.
    Laguna Negra virus (LNV) is a New World hantavirus associated with severe and often fatal cardiopulmonary disease in humans, known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Five hamster species were evaluated for clinical and serologic responses following inoculation with 4 hantaviruses. Of the 5 hamster species, only Turkish hamsters infected with LNV demonstrated signs consistent with HPS and a fatality rate of 43%. Clinical manifestations in infected animals that succumbed to disease included severe and rapid onset of dyspnea, weight loss, leukopenia, and reduced thrombocyte numbers as compared to uninfected controls. Histopathologic examination revealed lung lesions that resemble the hallmarks of HPS in humans, including interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary edema, as well as generalized infection of endothelial cells and macrophages in major organ tissues. Histologic lesions corresponded to the presence of viral antigen in affected tissues. To date, there have been no small animal models available to study LNV infection and pathogenesis. The Turkish hamster model of LNV infection may be important in the study of LNV-induced HPS pathogenesis and development of disease treatment and prevention strategies.
  • Characterization of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Isolate US/Iowa/18984/2013 Infection in 1-Day-Old Cesarean-Derived Colostrum-Deprived Piglets 28 dicembre 2015
    Madson, D. M., Arruda, P. H. E., Magstadt, D. R., Burrough, E. R., Hoang, H., Sun, D., Bower, L. P., Bhandari, M., Gauger, P. C., Stevenson, G. W., Wilberts, B. L., Wang, C., Zhang, J., Yoon, K. J.
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was first recognized in North America in April 2013 and has since caused devastating disease. The objective of this study was to characterize disease and viral detection associated with an original North American PEDV isolate inoculated in neonatal piglets. Thirty-six 1-day-old cesarean-derived and colostrum-deprived piglets were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or challenged group (n = 20); the latter were orogastrically inoculated with 1 ml of US/Iowa/18984/2013 PEDV isolate titered at 1 x 103 plaque-forming units per milliliter. Rectal swabs were collected from all piglets prior to inoculation and every 12 hours postinoculation (hpi) thereafter, with 4 control and 5 challenged piglets euthanized at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi. One piglet had a positive real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction test on rectal swab at 12 hpi, and all remaining piglets were positive thereafter, with highest viral quantities detected at 24 and 36 hpi. Diarrhea was evident in 30% and 100% of challenged piglets at 18 and 24 hpi, respectively. Viral antigen was detected in enterocytes by immunohistochemistry in the duodenum and ileum of piglets euthanized at 12 hpi and was apparent throughout the small intestine of all piglets thereafter, with villus height:crypt depth ratios consistently below 4:1. Viremia was confirmed in 18 of 20 pigs at euthanasia. Clinical disease was severe and developed rapidly following infection with an original North American PEDV isolate, with lesions, viremia, and antigen detection possible by 12 hpi.